Waste-Less Wednesday: Waste Free Kitchen Handbook Review

November 25, 2015 § Leave a comment

Thanksgiving kicks off the holiday season in the US this week, and for many of us that means the start of the eating season. Thanksgiving dinners this week will give way to December’s holiday parties, cookie exchanges, dinners out, and family gatherings. We’ll cook lots, eat lots, and yes, waste lots, too.

Cheesy baked mashed potatoes: a holiday tradition

Cheesy baked mashed potatoes: a holiday tradition

Who hasn’t prepared a holiday meal or hosted a holiday party and ended up with too much food? We fear running out or not having enough options for our guests, and so we overcompensate. Or maybe we make extra so that we don’t have to cook for a few days following the feast. And yet, inevitably, some of that food ends up in the garbage. When it comes to the T-Day bird, for example, the USDA estimates that we’ll toss out about one-third of it. Dollar-wise, that’s a collective $282 million going into the garbage this holiday season (despite our best efforts at eating turkey everything this coming weekend). Hard to swallow when there are so many food-insecure families who might be challenged to put even a small meal on the table this holiday season.

What if you had a handy-dandy kitchen reference to help you with portion planning for parties and holidays? Waste Free Kitchen Handbook by Dana Gunders can help you not only plan better for your holiday meals this year, but also provides guidance on how to get the most of what’s in your refrigerator year-round. Author Gunders, who is a staff scientist with the National Resources Defense Council, brought the food waste issue into the mainstream several years ago when the NRDC published her insightful report, Wasted: How America Is Losing 40 Percent of Its Food from Farm to Fork to Landfill.” Gunders knows food waste, and now she’s helping the rest of us do something about it.

A compendium of information for wasting less

A compendium of information for wasting less

Waste Free Kitchen Handbook is a colorful, easy-to-read, 200-page kitchen reference. Following a brief introduction, in which Gunders gives an overview of the food waste problem and contributing factors, the body of the guide is divided into three parts: Strategies for Everyday Life, Recipes, and Directory.

The first part — Strategies for Everyday Life — is comprised of six chapters that focus on how we can reduce food waste on a daily basis, from a grocery shopping strategy to meal planning to best practices for food storage. The book even includes sample meal-planning templates that you can copy and tape to your fridge! And there’s no expectation of perfection here, in fact, Gunders recommends scheduling a “lazy night” or two into weekly meal planning to accommodate those evenings when you just don’t want to cook dinner.meal-planning-template

The “Smarter Storage” chapter provides some colorful, useful graphics for effective food storage in your refrigerator and freezer — including demystification of the wilter crisper drawers. Yes, finally, a guide to what you should be storing in the crisper drawers and how those things really work! The “Kitchen Setup” chapter provides practical tips on how to organize your kitchen for efficient food storage, as well as giving a list of essential kitchen equipment. Regardless of whether you’re an experienced cook or a newbie to the kitchen, you’ll find useful information here.

Portion planning is something many of us struggle with, and Gunders covers that topic in two helpful charts: “How Much Should I Make?” for daily meal planning (adult and child portion sizes) and a larger “Party Portion Planning” chart that tells you how much to make for one person, 25 people, and a crowd of 50. And when it comes to leftovers, you’ll learn what’s safe to eat, how long can to keep it, and even a list of what you can share with your canine family members.

Part two, Recipes, is a collection of 20 “use it up” recipes for salvaging food on the brink. The recipe collection is nothing fancy, but rather focuses on practical, easy-to-manage, dinner-at-home dishes, such as chilaquiles, soups, and salads. Each recipe contains a brief summary of the ingredients you’ll use up, making the recipe section easily scannable and functional. If, for example, you know you need to use up vegetables, your options include the Free-for-All Frittata, Fried Rice, or Light Chicken Salad, to name a few.

Got leftover pasta, a protein, and some vegetables? There's a waste-less recipe for that!

Got leftover pasta, a protein, and some vegetables? There’s a waste-less recipe for that!

On first read, I thought this section was a bit simple and was hoping for more recipes (although the Sour Milk Pancakes have piqued my interest!). However, after a second read, I realized that Gunders has provided some solid recipes that can also provide the foundation for those who have the time or creativity to get fancier. More important, for the time-pressed, these recipes will get dinner on the table in a reasonable amount of time while reducing food waste. Win-win.

The final part, Directory, is my favorite. It’s an inclusive guide that answers those nagging questions about how to optimize the lifespan of the fresh ingredients and pantry staples that you buy regularly, including produce, proteins, dairy, and oils and condiments. For each item, Gunders summarizes optimal freshness details, where and how to store an item, and whether or not it can (or should) be frozen. No more wondering “can I freeze this?” “how long is it good?” or “should I store on the counter or in the refrigerator?” (Yes, Virginia, you can freeze herbs!) Even if you’ve got years of kitchen experience, this handy section collects all of this essential food info in one place.

Everything you need to know about reducing food waste, ingredient by ingredient

Everything you need to know about reducing food waste, ingredient by ingredient

Throughout the book, Gunders’ tone is knowledgable, yet reassuring. Her expertise comes through, and it’s clear that she’s done her research (see the Notes section for sources), but she also admits she’s as challenged as anyone when it comes to managing food waste at home. Gunders speaks of managing food waste as a journey and encourages the reader to think differently about what goes to waste and why.

Waste Free Kitchen Handbook is a guide for eaters and should be in every kitchen. It’s filled with useful information about food waste and what we can all do to reduce the problem in our own homes.

Waste-Less Wednesday: Down on the Farm

October 14, 2015 § 2 Comments

The issue of food waste has gone mainstream. Back in July, John Oliver covered the topic during an episode of “Last Week Tonight.” And last month, the USDA and EPA got in on the act, issuing a national Food Waste Challenge. The goal? To reduce food waste in the US by 50% by 2030. Already the challenge has received buy-in from major food retailers, as well as food industry and charitable organizations (although no formal program is in place yet).

Much of what’s reported and discussed in the media targets food waste at the consumer level: the food we buy and never eat, the science-experiment leftovers in our refrigerators, and the edible bits we toss out, like carrot greens and cauliflower leaves. But the consumer end is just one aspect of the food system in which food waste occurs. Food waste happens at all points in the system, literally from farm to table. According to the National Resource Defense Council (NRDC) report, “Wasted,” the total loss for fruits and vegetables at the production level is about 20%, (“production losses are greatest for fresh produce”) and from post-harvest to retail amounts to about 14%.

The type of waste that occurs on large, commercial farms often involves leaving behind fields of edible product to serve supermarket requirements for size and beauty. The amount of fresh food wasted in this way is staggering.

Just Eat It – Field Waste – Cauliflower (Deleted Scene) from Grant Baldwin on Vimeo.

But what about local farms in the 650, many of which are family owned and already focused on sustainability? How can a small farm — reliant on farmers’ markets, restaurants, and CSA subscribers for sales — manage and reduce food waste, while growing a business? I had a chance to ask John Vars, who is a partner-farmer of Fifth Crow Farm in Pescadero (along with co-partners Mike Irving and Teresa Kurtak) during FCF’s CSA Open House farm tour in August.

John Vars, one of Fifth Crow Farm's three partner-farmers, getting ready to lead a farm tour

John Vars, one of Fifth Crow Farm’s three partner-farmers, getting ready to lead a farm tour during the CSA Open House in August

You don’t see the kind of prettying-up waste that has happened on large, commercial farms. In terms of what Fifth Crow takes to market or provides to CSA subscribers, it’s the whole product harvested from the tree or bush or out of the ground. You’ll see the occasionally blemished or odd-sized fruit, extra-large heads of cauliflower, root vegetables with their greens still attached, and even roots-on basil.

Roots-on basil plant from Fifth Crow Farm: kept in water at room temperature, it lasted almost five weeks

Roots-on basil plant from Fifth Crow Farm: kept in water at room temperature, it lasted almost five weeks

Farmers’ markets are one of the less-predictable retail outlets for local farms. Market sales can be affected by weather, time of year, and customer tastes, just to name a few of the variables. Estimating market demand and producing “the right amount” is an on-going challenge for any growing food business.  You don’t want to disappoint customers by running out too quickly, but you also don’t want to end up with too much unsold product that you might have to take home with you.

One step in reducing food waste from farm to market then, is getting good at estimating your customers’ demands. Fifth Crow Farm currently participates in six Bay Area markets weekly, in addition to providing farm products to restaurants and CSA subscribers. With six years (now closing in on seven) of growing seasons behind them, the Fifth Crow folks have enough data and experience to better predict and plan what they take to farmers’ markets.

While they’ve gotten better at estimating what to take to market, inevitably there are items that don’t sell. In line with their sustainable, community-based approach to business, Fifth Crow handles leftover market products by:

  • Donating to community organizations that are able to pick up product directly from the market
  • Returning unsold produce to the farm and offering it to the employees, at no charge
  • Using it as food for the farm’s pasture-raised chickens (which produce some of the best eggs I’ve had recently)
No food waste: Fifth Crow Farm's pasture-raised chickens dine on greens, beets, kohlrabi, and fennel

No food waste: Fifth Crow Farm’s pasture-raised chickens dine on greens, beets, kohlrabi, and fennel

John mentioned that the partners especially like being able to offer the unsold products to their employees. In addition to paying a fair wage, it’s another way they support the employees’ hard work throughout the season.

So that’s how one local farm is doing it right: taking a multi-pronged approach that benefits the land, the community, and the farm as a business. Have you asked your local food producers and retailers how they’re reducing food waste? What did you learn? Share your experience in the comments below.

Waste-Less Wednesday: The Latest in Food Waste

September 30, 2015 § Leave a comment

Starting today, Waste-Less Wednesday is getting a bit of a change up. In addition to tips and recipes for reducing food waste at home, you’ll be seeing the occasional news roundup of food waste topics, near and far.

While I think about food waste at a micro level — i.e., my kitchen and local food system — recent conversations with friends have reminded me to look beyond the 650. Conversations about food waste are now happening with more frequency at the national and international levels, thanks to chefs, writers, and food activists. We’re learning more about the impact of food waste on hunger, loss of resources, and climate change — and how all of us can be a part of the food waste solution. Here’s a roundup of what you might have missed recently.

September 29, 2015
Book Release: Waste Free Kitchen Handbook: A guide to eating well and saving money by wasting less food by Dana Gunders

Photo via Amazon.com

Photo via Amazon.com

Dana Gunders, who authored the pivotal food-waste report “Wasted: How America Is Losing Up to 40 Percent of Its Food from Farm to Fork to Landfill,” is a Project Scientist with the National Resources Defense Council in San Francisco. I first heard her speak about food waste during a panel talk co-hosted by CUESA last year. During this educational and inspiring discussion, Gunders gave a most memorable description of consumer food waste: “It’s like going to the grocery store, buying five bags of groceries and dropping two of them in the parking lot — and leaving them there.”

As a scientist, Gunders wanted to understand what consumers needed to know to reduce food waste. Specifically, what did they need to know about buying, storing, and cooking food, including food that seems ready for the compost pile? For example: “When you’re standing in your kitchen with a wrinkled tomato, what do you need to know in order not to waste it?” In addition to practical information, the book also contains what Gunders calls “use-it-up recipes” for ingredients on the brink (or maybe just a little bit past).

Get the whole story in just 2 Minutes.
Read Dana Gunders’ blog post about the book release: Why I Wrote the Waste-Free Kitchen Handbook | Dana Gunders’s Blog | Switchboard, from NRDC

September 28, 2015
United Nations’ Food Waste Luncheon is All About the Leftovers

Photo via @UN_spokesperson (Twitter)

Photo via @UN_spokesperson (Twitter)

Blue Hill and wastED Chef Dan Barber and former White House Chef Sam Kass recently created a luncheon of repurposed food for 30 world leaders. The meal, which included dishes created for and served at Barber’s wastED pop-up restaurant brought attention to the issues of global food waste, loss of resources, and climate change. The printed menu included a description of each course, but also the source of each ingredient. The first course, “Landfill salad,” consisted of “vegetable scraps, rejected apples and pears, and chickpea water.”

Get the 2-Minute version of the UN Food Waste Luncheon:
“UN Serves ‘Landfill Salad’ to Highlight Food Waste”

September 25, 2015
More Than a Billion Pounds of Seafood Going to Waste Every Year

Fresh, wild Alaskan salmon fillets, purchased in the 650

Fresh, wild Alaskan salmon fillets, purchased in the 650

Food waste doesn’t occur just on the farm or in the food-manufacturing plants. According to a recent NPR article, almost half of the US seafood supply ends up wasted. While seafood waste happens throughout the system — from boat to processor to consumer — “consumers are far and away wasting more seafood than any other group,” tossing out 1.3 billion pounds of seafood annually. Some of this seafood is purchased and never eaten, and some is “plate waste” that ends up in pet food bowls or the garbage.

Consumers aren’t solely to blame for seafood waste. Processing plants discard the “less desirable” parts of fish (think: fish heads) in favor of supermarket-perfect pieces. Commercial fisheries contribute to waste as well, through bycatch. Bycatch are the unwanted fish and other marine life that are caught in addition to the target species. Efforts are being made in the industry to reduce bycatch, but it’s still a problem.

Want to know more? Check out this 3-minute read on the state of seafood waste in the US:
Via NPR | The Salt | “We Leave Half Of All Our Seafood On The Table (And In The Trash) by Alistair Bland

September 16, 2015
USDA and EPA Set National Food Waste Reduction Target
Food waste hits the big time — and that’s a good thing! The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have issued a nationwide food-waste challenge: a 50% reduction of food waste by 2030. A variety of big-name US food retailers, agriculture industry reps, and charitable organizations have already signed on with support (Albertsons, Wegmans Markets, and City Harvest, just to name a few.)

Read the press release in 2½ minutes or less:
Food Retailers, Agriculture Industry, and Charitable Organizations Support First National Goal to Reduce Food Waste by 50 Percent by 2030.”

Want more detail? Check out the Office of the Chief Economist’s web page on food waste.

What’s your food waste story? Share in the comments below.

Waste-Less Wednesday: Front-End Solutions

April 29, 2015 § 2 Comments

Did you happen to catch the film “Just Eat It” on MSNBC last week? The 74-minute documentary, produced and directed by Canadian filmmaking couple Grant Baldwin and Jenny Rustemeyer, examines the topic of food waste from field to table in North America. If you missed it, here’s a taste. (For more information about the film and additional screenings, check out the website.)

Just Eat It – A food waste story (Official Trailer) from Grant Baldwin on Vimeo.

No boring facts-and-figures, talking-heads approach, this film chronicles the couple’s adventures and reactions during their six-month project to give up grocery shopping and live solely on reclaimed food. That’s right, from asking for out-of-date products and ugly vegetables at the supermarket to outright dumpster diving at wholesale food-supply locations, they not only eat, but eat well for duration of the project. (Spoiler alert: They don’t actually eat food scraps, but rather reclaim perfectly good packaged food discarded by food businesses, such as distributors and grocery stores.)

The film intersperses the couples’ experiences in acquiring food with eye-opening details direct from farmers and food-waste educators about how and where food waste occurs all along the food supply chain. Most staggering fact? 40% of all food, from farm to factory to table is wasted — left in the field, considered unsaleable by grocery stores, and just plain thrown in the garbage. Cameron Anderson, Harvest Manager for grower Pacific International says in the film that 20-30% of food grown is left in the field. Why? It’s a two-part issue: supermarket specifications for produce and customer expectations about appearance.

Just Eat It – Field Waste – Cauliflower (Deleted Scene) from Grant Baldwin on Vimeo.

Supermarkets refuse otherwise perfectly fresh and edible produce because it doesn’t meet specifications for size or beauty. And customers support this approach by seeking out the perfect produce. How many times have you passed by bruised apples or weird-looking squash? (Confession: I’ve done it.) Even farmers’ markets, generally known as a good source of fresh and local food, aren’t immune. In the film, one market supplier points out a lone bunch of greens at his stand, saying that it won’t sell because customers think there’s something wrong with it if there’s only one left.

In terms of what we buy and take home, Dana Gunders, Project Scientist for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), says that 15-25% goes to waste. (I first heard these statistics from Dana during CUESA’s “Beyond the Green Bin” panel talk last year.) Putting that in practical terms, she says it’s like “buying four bags of groceries, dropping one in the parking lot, and leaving it there.” How does it happen? We over-estimate what we need, don’t use food before it spoils, throw away packaged or canned food because we’re not clear about what “best by” dates really mean, and so on.

Putting a dollar value on it, $165 billion worth of food is lost or thrown away annually in the US. And yet, approximately 17% of all Americans struggle with food insecurity, which means that at some point during the year, about 54 million people lack a reliable source of food. (Bringing it home, food insecurity in San Mateo county is close to 12% of our population.) At a macro level, we need a way to transfer that $165 billion of unnecessary food waste to those who lack a steady source of nourishment.

Wasted food is a waste of resources, which, when you think about it translates to even more dollars lost: the labor, water, and supplies that go into producing that food. Given our worsening drought conditions here in California, wasting food will have an even higher cost.

Food waste, then, can seem like an overwhelming and insurmountable problem. Indeed, social media reactions during the film included surprise, guilt, and anger at the amount and cost of waste. But knowledge is power, and as Maya Angelou said:  “Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.” Films like “Just Eat It” and panel talks like CUESA’s “Beyond the Green Bin,” provide the information we need to “do better.”

So while I’ve posted about ways to reduce food waste on the back end — using, salvaging, or preserving what you already have — let’s talk about ways to get ahead of food waste on the front end, before you’re making that “toss or keep” decision.

Be a Man (or Woman) with a Plan
Before you head out to the grocery store, take a quick inventory at home. What food staples do you need? What are your go-to foods for those quick weekday meals and how much do you have on hand? Having a plan before you get to the market or grocery store will not only save time, but also means that you’ll reduce the possibility of impulse buys or “just in case” purchases. (On that same note: don’t shop hungry.)

Planning ahead will also leave you some leeway for those unexpected dinners out or nights when you’re just too tired or overwhelmed to cook and pizza is on speed dial. Which leads me to why it’s a good idea to shop “European-style”: buy smaller quantities and shop more often.

Shop Euro-Style
Time is a limited resource, so many of us try to consolidate a week’s worth of food shopping into one trip. Believe me, I get it. However, what that means is we’re often overbuying and unable to use produce (some of which has a very short shelf life) before it starts to fade. If you’re wasting food because you’re trying to save time, and that wasted food has a cost beyond what you paid for it at the grocery store, what are you really saving?

Consider purchasing enough food for about a few days at a time and commit to using it up before shopping again. Your food will be fresher, and you’ll use more of it. Maybe you visit the grocery store once a week for proteins and packaged goods and the farmers’ market on the weekends for produce. Find something that works for your schedule and lifestyle. Don’t have time to get out? Sign up for a CSA delivery (or choose one that drops off at a central point in your neighborhood) or a broader delivery service like Good Eggs.

Make a List
Make a list of perishable items to use first and keep it on your refrigerator. For example, delicate herbs, salad greens and tomatoes have short shelf lives and should probably at the top of your “use first” list. You can also use this list as a place to jot ideas for recipes you want to make and ways to use up certain produce items.fridge-list

Take It Home
Dining out and takeout/delivery contributes to food waste in a couple of ways. As I mentioned above, it’s often the reason we don’t get through all of the fresh food purchased from the grocery store or market. But restaurants are also giving us large portion sizes — often more than most people can eat in one sitting.

Consider taking home whatever you don’t eat during the meal. More often than not, I can get at least one more meal out of restaurant leftovers, sometimes two. Or you can use the restaurant leftovers to create a new meal using what you have at home. Case in point: I recently ordered vegetable biryani (rice dish) from my favorite Indian place. Talk about value for money — I had enough biryani for three days’ worth of meals! Indian cooking is not in my skillset, but with the biryani as the foundation, I added my own steamed vegetables and protein to create some deliciously spicy dishes and saved myself some cooking time.

Food waste is not an insurmountable problem and changing how we shop for, store, and cook food can make a huge difference. How are you working to reduce food waste on the front end? Do you shop “Euro style”? Designate a place in the fridge for “use first” items? Share your ideas in the comments or on our Facebook page!

Waste-Less Wednesday: 5 Easy Waste-Less Tips

April 15, 2015 § 2 Comments

Reducing food waste at home is easier than you might think, and doesn’t have to involve projects like preserving foods or making soups. (Although these are definitely fun ways to reduce food waste and discover new recipes at the same time!) There are some simple things that you can do every day that will help you use up more of the food that lingers in your refrigerator — and keep it out of the trash. Check these 5 Easy Waste-Less Tips!

Zest Citrus First
Before you peel an orange for snacking or squeeze a lime for that margarita, zest the fruit first. Even if you don’t have an immediate use for the zest, you can store it in the refrigerator for up to three days.

Create a parchment packet for storing citrus zest until you need it

Create a parchment packet for storing citrus zest for future use.
Orange sorbet, anyone?

Create a zest “packet” using a small piece of parchment paper, approximately 4″ x 4″. Fold the paper in thirds horizontally, then vertically. Unfold the paper, then place the zest in the center “square” of the paper. Refold the parchment paper, nestling the zest inside. You can add a piece of tape to keep things closed, if you need to. Place the packet in a plastic bag and press all of the air out before sealing the bag. Store in a crisper drawer.

Keep Skins and Scraps for Stock or Broth
Before you peel root vegetables, take an extra minute to give them a good scrub and dry them off. After peeling and cutting off any end bits, put the peels and bits in a sturdy plastic bag and store it in your freezer for adding to soup stocks and broths in the future.

My collection of sweet potato peels from the past two weeks

My collection of sweet potato peels from the past two weeks, ready for the next
batch of Spring Vegetable Broth

(Note: If you’re eating sustainably and source your food from local, organic or pesticide-free farms, you shouldn’t need to give your vegetables an intense washing. A quick scrub should clean things up. However, if you’re purchasing conventionally grown vegetables, or don’t know whether pesticides were used on your food, you might want to skip this tip.)

Make Herb Salt
It’s tough to estimate exactly how many leaves of a fresh herb you’ll need to chop to end up with just the right amount for a recipe. I don’t know about you, but I often overdo, ending up with an extra teaspoon or two. Rather than tossing out that extra little bit, scoop it into a small bowl and add some salt (to your taste, but start with an equal amount of salt to herb). The herbs will dry out in a day or so, but you’ll have a quick herb salt ready to season the next dish you make. Sprinkle it on pasta, salad, or a baked protein.

Chopped too much parsley? Make a quick herb salt to use later.

Chopped too much parsley? Make a quick herb salt to use later.

When Life Gives You Bread Bits, Make Breadcrumbs
I’ve been crushing on this tasty spelt sourdough loaf lately. It’s dense and nutty and makes a sturdy toast that pairs nicely with homemade Blood Orange-Rosemary Marmalade. It’s a small loaf, however, which means that sometimes the end bits are just that — bits. You know, not substantial enough to be a real piece of bread, but you don’t want to throw it away?

Collect the heels and bits from your favorite loaf of bread in a resealable plastic bag, and when the time comes, you can use them to make breadcrumbs. (You can also freeze the bread bits until you’re ready to make breadcrumbs. Make sure you thaw the bits before toasting or processing for crumbs.)

Drying out the end bits from a loaf of bread

Drying out the end bits from a loaf of bread

Making breadcrumbs is as simple as toasting the bread bits on a foil-lined sheet pan in a 250° F oven for 25 minutes, then pulverizing them into crumbs in a food processor. You can toast the bits first, then process them, or vice versa. Recommendation: if using a dense bread (such as spelt) make the crumbs first, then toast.

Sauté Radishes and Tokyo Turnips
You can only make so many salads before you start craving another way to enjoy radishes and Tokyo turnips. If you’re looking for another way to prepare these intriguing root vegetables, try sautéing them. Cooking them over medium-high heat until browned changes their texture from crisp to tender, amplifies the sweetness, and highlights their earthy aroma. (Yes, sautéing is my go-to solution for “old” vegetables. Why? Because it works so well!)

Sauteed Tokyo turnips with fresh parsley

Sautéed Tokyo turnips with fresh parsley

Quick technique: Wash, dry, and trim the radishes or Tokyo turnips. Cut larger turnips or radishes (1½” in diameter) into quarters. Cut smaller vegetables in half. Heat 1½ teaspoon of olive oil in a non-stick saute pan over medium-high heat. Add the vegetables and sauté for 5-7 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add another teaspoon of olive oil to the pan and stir again. Reduce heat to medium and cover the pan with a lid. Continue cooking for 8-10 minutes, until radishes or turnips are browned, fragrant, and fork-tender. Season with salt, pepper, and fresh parsley.

Know What You Throw Out
In addition to the tips above, here’s a suggestion to help you get a handle on the food waste from your kitchen. If you have a countertop compost bin, take a look inside before you unload it into your green bin. What are you throwing out every day, every few days, or every week? Can you reduce that further by using some of these plan-head tips or adopting a leaf-to-root approach to eating?

If you don’t have a countertop compost bin, try this experiment: Put a medium-size on bowl on your counter. Use it as a countertop compost bin — a place where you toss any food or food bits that you would usually throw in the trash.

Several days' worth of food waste headed to the compost bin: soggy lettuce, a moldy lemon, and a few overly roasted carrot tops

Several days’ worth of food waste headed to the compost bin: soggy lettuce, a moldy lemon, and a few overly roasted carrot tops

If things start to get a little gross or stinky, cover it with a lid or some plastic wrap until full. How does it look after one day? After two days? How long before the bowl is full? What can you repurpose, freeze, preserve, or cook differently to reduce food waste?

Are you using any of these waste-less tips? What tips can you share for reducing food waste at home?

Wasteless Wednesday: Blood Orange-Rosemary Marmalade

March 28, 2015 § 2 Comments

March was full of activity Chez 650Food, and things have been busy, busy around here — lest you think I was taking a hiatus and had run off to some tropical beach. (sigh. I wish.). Following home reno projects, spring cleaning, and a trip to our nation’s capital for the International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) annual conference, I’m looking forward to a bit of calm (read: quiet) in April.

One project that I did manage to check off my list in March was a first attempt at canning (booyah!). Turns out that marmalade is a good solution for baby-stepping your way into canning, not to mention a delicious way to use up citrus fruits. In previous posts I’ve written about ways to enjoy a bounty of lemons (here, here, and here), but what about oranges? The last of the blood oranges are dwindling, but the navels and Valencias just keep a-comin’.

Mmmmm, marmalade

Mmmmm, marmalade

When I was doing research for a Waste-Less Wednesday post on herbs, I came across a recipe for Orange-Rosemary Marmalade in Jerry Traunfeld’s The Herbfarm CookbookLet me tell you: the recipe is fool-proof. You don’t have to be a professional cook or experienced canner to get this one right. Nor do you have to spend hours over the stove. Best of all, the recipe can easily be halved for smaller households (because, really, who has space for 6 jars of marmalade??).

It doesn't get more Bay Area than this: fresh rosemary, backyard lemons, and springtime blood oranges

It doesn’t get more Bay Area than this: fresh rosemary, backyard lemons, and springtime blood oranges

Why is marmalade such a good choice for first-time canners?

  • Fruit prep is simple: wash, dry, and slice.
  • No special ingredients required: citrus fruits are high in pectin, a carbohydrate found in the cell walls of fruit, which acts as a gelling agent when combined with water. Citrus brings its own pectin to the party, which means that you don’t need to buy or add pectin.
  • Not so time-consuming: Marmalade is fast! Total cooking time is 45-60 minutes, with the actual, hands-on part happening during the last 15 minutes or so.
  • No food waste: marmalade is a total win because you use the whole fruit: rind, pith, and pulp! (No seeds, though. Make sure to remove those.)

Before pointing you to the recipe, it’s worth saying a few things about the elephant in the room: botulism. Many first-time canners are worried that they’re going to botulize themselves and their families, so here’s some info that might help ease your mind. First of all, cases of botulism are very rare in the US. According to the CDC, an average of 145 cases are reported annually, and only 15% of those are caused by food. (To put that in perspective, the US population is about 318.9 million people.)

Food-borne botulism that results from home-preserved foods typically occurs in low-acid, high-moisture foods, such as tomatoes, green beans, and beets. Citrus-based marmalade is a high-acid food. The boiling process reduces the moisture content significantly. Sterilizing the jars by boiling them for at least 10 minutes is essential to reducing any possible contamination as well. For more information about food-borne botulism, check out this article on botulism from the CDC and this detailed post about canning from Food in Jars.

So, thanks to the wonders of Google Books, you can check out the recipe yourself and make either a full or half batch as suits your needs. I made a half batch, which yielded 2 pint jars and a not-quite-full half-pint jar.

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The ingredient list is short: oranges, lemon(s), sugar, water, rosemary. Choose organic fruit if you can, then you’ll only have to give it a quick rinse and scrub to remove any dirt.

Simple, organic goodness (cane sugar, blood oranges, lemon, rosemary) and filtered water

Ingredients: Simple, organic goodness (cane sugar, blood oranges,
lemon, rosemary) and filtered water

You can use any kind of orange, but the combo of blood oranges with rosemary elevates the marmalade’s flavor and gives it a pretty color. Plus, making marmalade now and preserving it for later means that you can enjoy blood oranges any time of year.

Beautiful regional blood oranges and one very local Eureka lemon

Beautiful regional blood oranges and one very local Eureka lemon

The recipe is a two-parter, so you’ll need to plan ahead a bit. On the first day, prep the fruit: wash, dry, slice in half and remove seeds, then slice the halves thinly. If you have a food processor with a slicing disk, you can get the work done in just a few minutes.

Thinly sliced fruit, ready for the pot

Thinly sliced fruit, ready for the pot

Sliced fruit goes into the pot with water for an overnight soak that softens the rinds and releases the pectin. On the second day, you boil the water and fruit for 30 minutes. The fruit will soften further as it cooks down and the pectin is released. The color will start to change from a rich blood orange to a pinkish-orange color.

Cooking the citrus and rosemary with sugar and water

Boiling the sliced blood oranges and lemon with water

After boiling the fruit for 30 minutes, add the sugar and rosemary sprigs (wrapped in cheesecloth and tied) and continue boiling for 15-30 minutes. This is the part where you want to be nearby and pay attention. You’ll also want to sterilize the pint jars by submerging them in boiling water for at least 10 minutes and sterilize the canning lids and bands in a separate saucepan.

As the marmalade mixture starts to gel, the bubbles will change from small, quick champagne-like bubbles to larger, thicker, more viscous bubbles. Once you see those larger bubbles (around 15-20 minutes in), do a “wrinkle test” to see if the marmalade has set up or needs to continue cooking.

Doin' the marmalade wrinkle test

Doin’ the marmalade wrinkle test

Have a chilled plate waiting in the refrigerator or freezer. Spoon a small amount of marmalade jelly (not the fruit) from the pot onto the plate and return the plate to the refrigerator. Let the jelly chill for a minute or two, then test it by removing the plate from the refrigerator and pushing the jelly with your finger. If it wrinkles, your marmalade is finished and ready for canning. If it’s still smooth and syrupy, keep cooking. I found that the wrinkle test was positive at 27 minutes and my marmalade was done! (YMMV.)

You don’t need any special equipment for making this marmalade, other than some pint-sized canning jars with lids and lid bands. In the 650 you can find pint-sized jars sold in packages of 4 or 12 at Orchard Supply, Ace Hardware, Target, and Whole Foods.

Filling hot jars with hot marmalade

Filling hot jars with hot marmalade

The Ball Jar folks also make an inexpensive canning-tool “kit” that includes a jar lifter, headspace tool (for measuring how much space to leave below the mouth of the jar), wide-mouth funnel, and a magnetic lid lifter. The kit, which is available at Orchard Supply and Ace Hardware, is a “nice-to-have,” but not required. You can substitute items that you likely already have at home. Got a pair of kitchen tongs? Create a gripping jar lifter and lid lifter by wrapping a thick rubber band around each wide, scalloped end of the tongs. Keep a metal ruler handy for measuring headspace.

The real test of canning success is waiting to find out how well you sealed the jars. You won’t know until the jars have cooled almost completely whether or not you have a good seal. If you press on the center of the lid, and it doesn’t pop back at you, congratulations! You’ve got a good seal. Refrigerate jars that don’t have a good seal — or any about which you might be concerned. Also, refrigerate any jars that weren’t filled to the headspace recommended in the recipe. You’ll want to open and use those first.toast-n-marm-closeup

I’ll admit to doing the happy dance in my kitchen when those lids didn’t pop back at me. Maybe it wasn’t a Tom Hanks “I have made fire!” (Castaway) moment, but it was pretty cool. Have you made marmalade? Share your experience or ideas in the comments.

Waste-Less Wednesday: Fresh Herbs

March 4, 2015 § 3 Comments

Earlier this year, a reader posted a great question to 650Food’s Facebook page:

I have a “minimizing food waste” question. I bought loads of fresh herbs for holiday cooking. Some I have in a cup of water in the fridge, but others are in their mini plastic clamshell awaiting turning into mush before being dumped unceremoniously into the compost bin. What’s the best way to preserve these herbs? Thanks!

So much parsley! What to do...?

So much parsley! What to do…?

Great question (thank you Amy)! Sound familiar? How often do you buy a bunch of herbs, but only need, oh, a tablespoon or a few sprigs for a specific recipe and are then left wondering what to do with the rest? Herbs are mostly delicate little things and have a short lifespan, even if you store them properly.

So, how to get the most out of your herbs without wasting them? You have options! If you want to save herbs for a later use or have a garden surplus, then consider preserving by drying or freezing. Whether you choose to freeze or dry your herbs, make sure you wash and pat them dry first. Here are two simple options for freezing herbs:

  • Herb cubes. Chop herbs finely, place into ice cube trays, and gently top off each ice cube mold with water before freezing. After ice cubes have hardened, you can remove them from the tray and store them in freezer bags. Need a visual? Check out Organic Gardening’s slide show.
  • Keep herbs whole and store in freezer bags. If you want to skip the chopping and just get to preserving, package your whole herbs into freezer bags. Make sure to press as much air as possible from the bags before sealing. Better Homes & Gardens recommends freezing for these more commonly used herbs: basil, chives, dill, lemongrass, mint, oregano, sage, tarragon, thyme.

While I’ll always take fresh herbs over dried, having a stash of dried herbs on standby is a great option when you don’t have access to fresh or frozen herbs. There are a variety of methods for drying herbs, including air drying, low oven (180° F for 2-4 hours), dehydrator, and microwave. I’m old school and go for the air-drying method (least amount of work, too!):  I tie a bunch together with a pretty ribbon, then hang them upside from a hook in my kitchen. After the herbs are dried, I remove the leaves/buds from the stems and store them in a glass jar or plastic container.

So that covers preserving, but what about ways to use up fresh herbs before they start to turn brown or drying becomes your only option?

Honestly, once herbs go into my refrigerator, I forget about them. When I had herbs growing in my garden last summer, it became an evening routine to grab a pair of scissors, head out to the yard, and just snip as much as I needed for the evening meal. But somehow when I buy herbs from the market, I don’t feel as inspired to use them on a daily basis and factoring them into daily cooking takes a bit of effort. Here are some of the ways in which I’ve been using — and using up — herbs.

Simple Syrups
Herb-infused simple syrups can be used for flavoring cocktails, making non-alcoholic spritzers, dressing up a fruit salad, sweetening lemonade… just to give you a few ideas. Best herbs for simple syrup infusions include lavender, rosemary, and sage.

Sage simple syrup pairs well with whiskey and gin cocktails.

Sage simple syrup pairs well with whiskey and gin cocktails. Try it with Belmont’s own Rusty Blade gin.

Herb Butter
Herb butter is so easy to make it’s ridiculous! And it’s sooo good on bread, crackers, fish, potatoes… pretty much anything that can serve as a butter-delivery device. Want to make it right now? Put 1 stick of butter into a microwave-safe bowl (remove the wrapper first), heat in the micowave until soft, then mix with a spatula until smooth. Add 2 tablespoons of finely chopped herbs (try parsley, chives, oregano, or thyme) and ¼ teaspoon of salt. Mix again until smooth. Level up? Add two roasted garlic cloves (smoosh and mix into the butter).

Parsley butter with roasted garlic

Parsley butter with roasted garlic

Herbed Roasted Vegetables
Herbs and vegetables are a natural combo: parsley and potatoes; oregano, tomatoes, and eggplant; thyme and radicchio just to name a few. My new fav? Roasted sweet potatoes, finished with a drizzle of local orange blossom honey, crushed red pepper, and finely chopped rosemary.

Spicy, salty, herbal, sweet: roasted sweet potatoes with a drizzle of local honey, crushed red pepper, ground sea salt, and fresh rosemary.

Spicy, salty, herbal, sweet: roasted sweet potatoes with a drizzle of local honey, crushed red pepper, ground sea salt, and fresh rosemary.

Herbed Pasta
When I’m absolutely too tired to cook and too hungry to wait for delivery, I’ll make soba noodles and top them with whatever I can assemble in the four minutes it takes the noodles to cook. If there are no leftover roasted vegetables ready to go, then finely chopped herbs, olive oil, a sprinkling of sea salt, and a handful of shredded Asiago cheese will do the trick.

How do you preserve or use up fresh herbs? Share your ideas in the comments below!

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